Comparative religious study brings to light a remarkable similarity between the major religions of the world in broad areas. For some the very fact that people living continents apart should live by similar rules and laws is proof that religion is man-made. They feel these man-made religions satisfy some inherent need in man’s nature. Man needs to have some higher power to worship, and so men and women all over the world invent their own Gods in an attempt to cater for this need.

 

While this charge can in part be made against the Pagans and Idol worshipers it is not possible to dismiss all religions off the world in this manner. The similarity of all the major religions is due to their Divine roots. As books from an author resemble each other, the religious teachings of Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Sikhism, Hinduism and Buddhism all resemble one another. All, without exception, promote good deeds, moral values, peace and harmony. Of course there are many ideas, concepts, and dogmas that are specific to religions such as reincarnation, karma, or original sin, but at the core of the teaching there is enough similarity to show that these religions are from a common source.

 

In religious study the idea of “The Messiah” is a crucial and almost universal concept. It occurs repeatedly. The first coming of the Messiah being in the form of Jesus Christ is a debated issue, but accepted by both Islam and Christianity. The importance of the person of Christ is summarised eloquently by Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad in the following:

 

“His (Christ) importance does not remain confined to the Christian world alone but also extends to other major world religions such as Judaism and Islam in particular. If these powerful religions were to unite in one common understanding about the nature of the person of Christ, his first and also his promised second advent, then such an understanding would lead to the resolution to many problems confronting mankind today.” Christianity – a Journey from Facts to Fiction

 

The Messiah is where all religious groups come together, and yet are divided. Where they all agree, yet all disagree. A Jew would say that the Messiah is yet to come. A Christian would say Jesus Christ, the Messiah and Son of God, has come and gone to heaven, and will return and bring about “Heaven on Earth”. An orthodox Muslim would agree, but say Jesus was simply a prophet of God, and on his return he will forcibly convert the world to Islam. An Ahmadi Muslim would say that Jesus Christ was buried in India at the age of 120, and his spiritual second coming has already occurred. According to Acharya S, author of The Christ Conspiracy, Jesus Christ did not even exist, but was just a mythical character.

 

It is not possible for all these viewpoints to be correct at the same time. There has to be some version that is the real truth.

 

The facts about the life of Jesus Christ are also very much debated. Not even the events of this important man’s life are fully documented in the main religious scriptures. The Bible has a huge gap in the life of Jesus Christ, where as the Quran gives a general overview of his importance and mission, renunciation of the Christian doctrine of Sonship and Deification, yet does not full give details about his life works. Buddhist scriptures tell a very different story about Jesus, and Jewish scriptures relate the signs of his first coming, for which they still await.

 

Finding the truth and reaching a consensus on this crucial topic, that is acceptable to all parties, is the ultimate aim of this text. This complex subject has indeed been tackled before by scholars and literary experts, but the purpose of this text is to pull together all the pieces of the jigsaw and take a look at the picture they produce.

 

Attachment to old doctrines and dogmas will always prove a problem when analysing this topic. Mirza Tahir Ahmad has dealt with this subject both in Christianity – A Journey from Facts to Fiction and in Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge, and Truth. He has taken the approach of using rationality and logic to analyse the topic, stating that this is the only common platform to all on which fruitful dialogue can proceed. In Saving the Savior Abubakr Ben Ishmael Salahuddin analyses the issue of the life of Jesus Christ as an objective observer, ignoring his personal beliefs. My approach in this text is to use the evidence that has been unearthed, from numerous sources, and put forward the case of the Ahmadiyya Movement. I will draw evidence from scriptures of all the major religions of the world, as well as evidence gathered by scholars and experts from all walks of life, and all religious backgrounds.

 

The stand point I am going to take in this text, and indeed the Ahmadi viewpoint, is that there is some religious knowledge and truth in all religious books. There are also errors and corruption in the texts, their translations, or their interpretations. How is it that we can extract the truth and the wisdom from the imperfect interpretations of these texts? The method I will use in this text is to look for common ideas that are mentioned in more than one scripture or tradition. This is the system that would be used in Law Courts and other places. If many differing versions of the same story contain an observation that is common to all than this is accepted as close to fact. This method will not always work, but the repetition of an idea in conflicting ideologies will no doubt strengthen its authenticity. There are some glaring exceptions to this, but these will be examined and handled individually later on in the text.

 

In the classification of the authenticity of sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) a similar system is employed. If a saying appears in several of the accepted books of his sayings then it is accepted as an authentic hadith (saying). With regards to the Bible, an idea or happening reported by all the Gospel writers is far more readily accepted as having occurred than one reported only in one Gospel.

 

Much of the material will be drawn directly from other works on this topic, and the reader is advised strongly to read those materials in their entirety to examine the foundations that the case put forward in this text is based on. All sources used will openly be acknowledged and the reader will have full licence to examine the authenticity and validity of these sources in their own study.

 

This text is an appeal to the intelligence in modern man, and also a calling to the right path that we all seek. May Allah allow the reader to examine the case with an open mind and an open heart and bring the reader to the right decision about the Messiah. Ameen.


 

Now let us turn our focus to the prophecies concerning the first coming of the Messiah. Islam, Christianity and Sikhism were not born at this stage, so Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism will provide the criteria any claimant must fulfil. Hinduism had already had the advent of their Messiah in the form of Krishna. Thus it was the Jews and the Buddhists who were awaiting their Messiah.

 

Role of the Messiah

 

The Jews were awaiting the Messiah anxiously. They wanted someone to free them from the rule of the Romans. They were certainly not a free people and to grant them this independence they awaited the prophesised advent of the Messiah who was to be their key to freedom. He would usher in a new era where the Jews would be supreme once more and be God’s chosen people.

 

The Messiah also was to rebuild the temple. He was to bring peace to the lands, and bring all the Jews back to the Holy Land.

 

Interestingly the Buddhists too awaited another incarnation of Buddha. There is a prophecy contained in Laggawati Sutatta, a Buddhist record, that talks of the advent of a second Buddha named “Metteyya”. Buddha himself said that this second Buddha would be a greater Buddha than himself. Buddha also mentioned the time period of 500 years, saying that the faith would not last more than that as people would stop believing. It was after this 500 year period that someone was needed to return the faith to what it was. This is where Metteyya would come in.

 

Also the books of Pitakkatayan and Atha Katha contain a clear prophecy about the coming of a Buddha known as Bagwa Metteyya. Bagwa in Sanskrit means “white”. This implied that this Buddha would be of fairer complexion than the others.

 

Signs of his advent

 

When examining the prophecies regarding the Messiah’s advent in the Old Testament Christians make a crucial mistake. They attribute all prophecies of a promised Prophet to the coming of the Jesus Christ. Muslims, however, feel that some prophecies in the Bible definitely refer to the advent of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be Upon him).

 

The Christian’s dig for themselves a hole by claiming that Jesus was fulfilment of all these prophecies and leave his claims open to attack. Despite this there are still many signs for the advent of the Messiah that were indeed fulfilled by the person of Jesus Christ.

 

There is still debate about certain prophecies from the Old Testament. The Jews claim that the Christians have translated the Hebrew in ways to suit them, and in ways that help Jesus Christ’s claim. These claims of the Jews will be examined further in the following chapter, but for now the prophecies in the Bible will be presented as they appear in the English translation.

 

In Isaiah 7:14 we find the words:

 

“ ‘Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel’ ”

Bible : NIV

 

The Jewish argument against this is that the original Hebrew word used translated here as ‘virgin’, ‘almah’ in fact only means “Young lady” and not virgin. Despite this they do concede that Jewish scholars translated this as ‘Virgin’ when translating the Hebrew of the Old Testament in to Greek. Taking this in to account the Virgin birth can be accepted as a sign of the Messiah.

 

In Zechariah 9:9f we find the prophecy talking of the Messiah to be presented to the people of Jerusalem riding on a donkey.


"Rejoice greatly, O daughter of
Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass."

 

The Messiah is said to also visit the temple suddenly, and be angered by disrespect shown towards the temple. We read in Psalm 69:9 a:

 

“ ‘For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me.’ ”

 

With regards to his sudden entrance the prophecy is contained in the Old Testament is:

 

"and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts."

(Malachi 3:1b)

 

The Messiah would be a descendent of David. This is an accepted fact by all. It is mentioned numerous places in the Bible. The following are references mentioning the Messiah being from the lineage of David:

 

2 Samuel 7:12-13, 16

1 Chronicles 17:11-12a

Psalm 89:3-4, 29, 35-36

Psalm 132:11, 17

Isaiah 7:13-14

Isaiah 9:7

Jeremiah 23:5-6a

Jeremiah 33:14-15

Ezekiel 17:22-24

Ezekiel 34:23-24

 

This is not a controversial sign at all, and is fully accepted by the Jews also.

 

The following prophecies help give us an overall picture of the attributes of the Messiah:

 

"Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion."

Psalm 2:6



"Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people."

Isaiah 55:4

 

"I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old:"

Isaiah 6:9-10b

 

 

He will be a King, a leader, a witness to the people. He will speak in parables, and will be filled with wisdom, and understanding. Details of events during the lifetime of the Messiah are also given:

 

"Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.-"

Psalm 41:9

"Reproach hath broken my heart; and I am full of heaviness: and I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; and for comforters, but I found none."

 Psalm 69:20b

 

 

"He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not."

Isaiah 53:3b

 

"He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? For he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken."
Isaiah 53:8b

 

The Messiah would be betrayed by a friend of his whom he even ate with; he would be abandoned and left by his followers. He will be punished as a result of their ignorance in accepting him.

 

A Crucial prophecy in regards to the coming of Christ is that of the return of Elijah. 

 

“See, I will send you the prophet Elijah before that great and dreadful day of the Lord comes.”

Malachi 4:5

 

The purpose of Elijah’s advent was to warn the people and to prepare them for the advent of the Messiah. In Isaiah we read a further description of this warner:

 

“A voice of one calling: "In the desert prepare the way for the Lord; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our God.” Isaiah 40:3

 

The person of Elijah is crucial to fully understanding not only the first coming, but later when we come to look at the promised second coming.

 

Elijah is an old prophet physically taken up to heaven as we read:

 

As they (Elijah and Elisha) were walking along and talking together, suddenly a chariot of fire and horses of fire appeared and separated the two of them, and Elijah went up to heaven in a whirlwind.

II Kings 2:11

 

This prophet was thus physically taken up to heaven and prophesised to return to make way for the Messiah and to mark the nearness of his arrival.

Fulfilment by Jesus son of Mary

 

There is little room left for much conjecture about to whom these prophecies relate. Jesus was born of a Virgin, in Bethlehem. He was a leader, and a King. He claimed to be the King of the Jews and this claim was noticed by all as it was written above his cross at the crucifixion.

 

With regards to the him being a witness, we have the following contained in a verse in the Holy Quran:

 

“And I was a witness over them as long as I remained among them”

Al Ma’idah 5: 118

 

Jesus Christ visited the temple and we read of his anger and reaction to the practises that took place there in John 2: 13-17.

 

Joseph was a descendant of David so Jesus too was from the lineage of David. Christ indeed taught in parables, parables that are still famous to this day. There is no question that these were filled with the prophesised wisdom the promised one was to bring. His words always carried a deep message. His skill with words was unrivalled in his time. There are numerous examples of this. One exchange that always stays in my mind is the conversation that occurs between Pilate and Jesus Christ just prior to his sentencing. These brief exchanges impress Pilate enough for him to declare Jesus an innocent man. Further, when his claim of being the Son of God is mentioned Pilate becomes even more anxious, as he realises the Jesus was a truthful man and his claims must be true.

 

The events mentioned to occur in the life of the Messiah also occur in Jesus’ life. He was indeed betrayed by a close friend, one of his disciples. In his moment of need he was abandoned. When he asked his disciples to pray with him in the garden of Gethsemane they fell asleep. At the time of his being placed on the cross his disciples were in hiding for fear of persecution. He was indeed abandoned. Also his punishment was a result of the Jews of his time not having recognised him. The reason for this failure to recognise him will be examined in the following chapter.

 

The Return of Elijah

 

Once again the name of Elijah is mentioned. Before the Messiah can lay claim to his position Elijah must first have descended from the Heavens and started to prepare the people for Christ’s advent.

 

So the crucial question is that did Elijah indeed return physically out of the heavens? The answer to this question indeed would have to be no. The impact and details of this are discussed later. For now we will see what Jesus’ answer to this was.

 
” ’This is the one about whom it is written: 'I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way before you’.’I tell you the truth: Among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist…”

Matthew 11:10 - 11

 

 

He continued to say:

 

“And if you are willing to accept it, he is the Elijah who was to come”

Mathew 11:14

 

Jesus’ statements are clear and leave no room for doubt. He states that Elijah has indeed returned, but in the form of John the Baptist. He is also aware that this claim will not be accepted easily. On an examination we see that John the Baptist does fulfil the role given to Elijah upon his return. In the Gospel of Luke we read of how an angel was sent to John’s father, Zechariahs, telling him that his wife would given birth to a special child who will be a forerunner before the Messiah “in the spirit and power of Elijah”

 

Again in Mathew 17 we read of this explanation of Jesus’. His followers question him about Elijah’s return to which he answers:

 

Jesus replied, "To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands." Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist.”

 

This is in harmony with the account we read earlier in Matthew. Elijah has returned in the form of John the Baptist. Not in any form of reincarnation, but John has come in the spirit of Elijah and he is similar to him in spirit.

 

This is our first encounter with the concept of a spiritual second coming.

 

Jesus himself tells us that John was sent in the spirit of Elijah when the people themselves were awaiting the bodily, physical, return of Prophet Elijah as he had been taken up physically many years before. This was the belief, and Jesus’ statement that John was the second coming of that same Elijah was not accepted openly and caused people difficulty.

 

To the followers of Jesus it posed no problem and the tasks performed by John the Baptist and his claims and words were proved to be true. He showed the people Christ and it was through him that they openly were introduced to him.

 

Jesus Christ the Messiah

 

Overall we see a fulfilment of the scriptures in their entirety. Jesus even rode in to Jerusalem on a donkey. This sign was accepted by the people who witnessed it. All the Gospels bear testament to the fact that Jesus did indeed ride on a donkey, and that the reaction of the people was to glorify Jesus.

 

Jesus had fulfilled so many of the signs of the coming of the Messiah. His personal qualities and manner showed all of the signs of someone sent from the Lord. His character was testament to his truth, and his words were prophetic and of heavenly quality.

 

Jesus Christ the “White” Buddhist Messiah

 

The original Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, was born in around 560 BC in Kapilavastu, India. Jesus was a man from Palestine, and of a fairer complexion. There have been people who have tried to portray him as having a darker skin tone, but this is not in keeping with historical evidence, or with logic. He would have had a fair skin, and he would definitely have fairer skin than the Buddha. Jesus Christ was also born about 500 years after advent of the Buddha. Both these signs appear to clearly fulfil the criteria of the Metteya.

The End of the Search?

 

With all this in support of his claim, with he himself being living proof of it, surely there could be no way that the people of the time would fail to recognise him. Surely the work of prophets in the past such as Isaiah, Buddha, and Malachi who had taken time to painstakingly explain the signs of the coming of the Messiah had now paid off. No doubt could now be left in his claim and the people had no choice to accept him. Right? Far from it.


 

 


 

Tragically, despite the fulfilment of the mentioned prophecies and signs shown at his hand Jesus Christ was not accepted by the main stream Jews of the time. He was fiercely opposed and eventually an attempt was made on his life in the form of Crucifixion. How could anyone not realise he was the Messiah when so many prophecies were fulfilled? How could the people be so blind? The answers to these questions need to now be analysed.

 

Rejection of Prophets Before Him

 

By his very rejection a prophecy was being fulfilled. Looking back in history it is the pattern that when a messenger comes delivering a message he is rejected and mocked by the people. It had happened to prophets before Jesus and it continued to happen to prophets after him.

 

Prophet Noah was rejected even by members of his own family. Noah was sent to warn the people about a calamity that was to befall them unless they begged for forgiveness from Allah. But, alas, Noah reports:

 

“He said, ‘My Lord, I have invited my people night and day. But my invitation only increased their aversion.’ ” 

 (Quran – Chapter 71, verses 5-6)

 

We read of the rejection of Moses in the Bible in the speech of Steven (Acts 7) verses 35

 

“This Moses, whom they had rejected with the words ‘Who made you ruler and judge?” – this very man was commissioned by God himself, speaking through the angel who appeared to him in the bush.”

 

Stephen comments on the pattern that we find throughout religious history in his final attack at the High Priest relating to the rejection of Jesus Christ:

 

“How stubborn you are, heathen still at heart and deaf to the truth! You always fight against the Holy Spirit. Like fathers, like sons. Was there ever a prophet whom your fathers did not persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One; and now you have betrayed him and murdered him,” (verses 51-53)

 

The Holy Quran mentions the topic of the rejection of the messengers of Allah in numerous places. In Chapter 36 (Sura Ya Sin) verse 31 Allah says:

 

Alas for my servants! There comes not a Messenger to them but they mock at him.”

 

It is true that it was a prophecy that he would be rejected. Despite this the role of the Messiah was to unite the Jews and to bring them back to the right path. 

 

How could someone claim to be the saviour for the Jews when he is rejected by the majority? Something was wrong, was Jesus Christ really the Messiah?

 

Mirza Tahir Ahmad paints beautifully summarises the already mentioned pattern with regards to the coming of prophets:

 

“If we examine the lives of Moses, Jesus, or Muhammad and other similar prophets who claimed Divine origin, we shall invariably discover that none among them ever represented a well-established and popular religious order. Theirs was a lone voice of revolution. Invariably they based their claims on revelation and advocated a new philosophy demanding a completely different way of life. They preached values which were at odds with the prevailing customs and practises. They always emerged as harbingers of a new order and dared to challenge the prevailing religious authorities of the time.”

 

Apart from the general trend of the rejection of messengers of Allah there were specific accusations brought against Jesus as to why he was not the Messiah.

 

When looking at these the reasons for rejection by the people of the time, and reasons for rejection by the Jews of today will be examined separately.

 

Objections of the Jews of the Time

 

In the case of Jesus there was some specific reasons for rejection. There were certain claims that the Jews of the time did not accept, and certain signs that they claimed had not been fulfilled in Jesus son of Mary.

 

Jesus’ Mission

The Jews of the time were oppressed by the Romans. They wanted someone to free them from the chains, and to liberate them. Jesus said how his Kingdom does not belong to this World. His liberation was to be a spiritual one, not a bloody over-throwing of the ruling powers of the time.

 

The Jews wanted a military leader, not a peace loving Messiah. The Temple was to be re-built and the Jews were to live in the Promised Land. This is what the Jews were awaiting. They wanted the Romans to be removed from their land.

 

A humble, peaceful man who came to them riding on a donkey was not what the Jews wanted.

 

Return of Elijah

Jews were not ready to accept the advent of the Messiah until the Elijah of the Torah, taken up to heaven by a whirlwind, physically returned. They stated how the prophecy did not talk of sending someone in “the likeness of Elijah” but of sending Elijah himself. The exact same person who was physically in the heavens awaiting the time of his promised return.

 

The book of Malachi was clear on this. It is worth once again examining the prophecy relating to the Messiah’s forerunner:

 

“See, I will send you the prophet Elijah before that great and dreadful day of the Lord comes.”

Malachi 4:5

 

This certainly seems a fair criticism of Jesus’ claims. Looking at the prophecy in the light of modern day medicine it is easily recognisable that ideas of physical ascension in to heaven, and then return after hundreds of years for a body is not possible.

 

The first question arises is where are the heavens? It is easy for the people of the time to have believed that heaven is in the skies. Modern day science has proved that beyond the atmosphere is space. It may be thought that heaven is somewhere in space that we have not discovered yet. Thus Elijah was taken up through the skies, in to space, and to the heavens in his earthly bodies. Even with this hypothesis we encounter problems. No human body would survived passing through the the upper atmosphere without any protection. Also once in space no oxygen would be present and so keeping his physical body alive would not be possible.

 

Of course this does not cause any problems for an all powerful God who can do as he will, correct? This may be the view held my some, but the modern day man does not accept this. Religion is from a most Perfect Supreme Being that created us and the whole universe. He does have ultimate power, but he also has created natural laws and stays within those laws.

 

In the Holy Quran the people are reported to have told the Holy Prophet (saw) that if he was truly from Allah that he should show the miracle of ascending in to the heavens and then sending down a book from the heavens. The verses in question are in Chapter 17:

 

“And they say, `We will not believe in thee until thou cause a spring to gush forth for us from the earth;

 

`Or, thou have a garden of date-palms and vines and cause streams to gush forth in the midst thereof in abundance;

 

`Or, thou cause the heaven to fall upon us in pieces, as thou hast claimed, or, thou bring ALLAH and the angels before us face to face;

 

`Or, thou have a house of gold or thou ascend up into heaven; and we will not believe in thy ascension until thou send down to us a Book that we can read.'

 

Say, `Holy is my Lord ! I am but a mortal sent as a Messenger.' “
Verses 91-94

 

Thus no mortal can ascent to the heavens. If Jews reflect on this matter with insight in to their own Jewish laws they will see that in Judaism such an occurrence would not be accepted. For Elijah to ascent to physically to heaven only to then be sent again to the earth is against Jewish beliefs.

 

The matter mentioned in the prophecy was a figure of speech. It was a metaphor along the lines of other such symbolic or metaphorical statements made in the Holy Scripture. Despite this the objection about Elijah’s return is still found to this day.

 

John the Baptist fulfilled the role that Elijah was prophesised to play in the identification of the Messiah. If Jesus himself identified him as Elijah, and the jobs assigned to this second coming of Elijah were fulfilled by Elijah than surely this cannot be a reason to reject both John as Elijah and Jesus as Messiah.

 

The explanation given by Jesus is a plausible one, and must be accepted if he fulfils all the other criteria for his claim of being the Messiah.

 

Genealogy and Virgin Birth

It has been shown that from the scriptures the Messiah was to be a descendant of David. The Gospel of Matthew very early on lists the family tree of Jesus Christ. It lists 14 generations from Abraham to David, 14 from David to the deportation to Babylon, and a further 14 from the deportation to the Messiah. This is done meticulously in order to provide evidence that Jesus was indeed from the house of David. In Luke also we find the family tree of Jesus presented, this time it travels all the way up to Adam and then God Himself.

 

This detailed explanation of Jesus’ family tree was to illustrate that he was indeed from the house of David. The Gospel writers knew that this was a criterion for his claim and they wanted to show his truth.

 

The problem arises from his birth being reported as a Virgin birth. The Jews say that as Joseph was not his biological father, Jesus cannot be a descendent of King David. Some Christians try to answer this allegation by saying that Jesus was related to David through Mary too. To this the Jews answer saying that the tradition talks of him being related to David through the father’s side, thus Mary’s genealogy is irrelevant.

 

Looking at this logically it is clear that we cannot through out Jesus’ claims totally on this basis. If he was to be born of a Virgin, then it would be impossible for him to claim to be from the house of David, yet both the virgin birth and being a descendant of David were signs of his advent.

 

Here the Jews would point out that they do not accept the virgin birth either. They point to the translation of Isaiah 7:14 being incorrect. They say the word “virgin” is not used and also the sign mentioned there is referring to a totally different event to the Messiah’s advent.

 

Was Jesus born of a Virgin? The issue is being brought in to doubt now. If she was a virgin then the child could not have been a descendant of King David in the literal sense. When two traditions or prophecies are seemingly in contradiction of one another, then an interpretation that allows both to be true should be sought. Reconciliation must be sought between the two contradictor views.

 

This sign is fulfilled to the satisfaction of many, but technically it can potentially still be held as a bone of contention.

Objections of the Modern Day Jews

 

The modern day Jews still harbour the same objections of the Jews of the time of Jesus, but they also draw attention to many other issues which need to be dealt with separately. The reason for this separation for the objections will come clear later on, particularly in the following chapter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                           



 

This chapter contains the most controversial material found in the entire text. It calls in to doubt facts accepted by the modern day orthodox followers of both Islam and Christianity and also, to a lesser degree, Judaism. The material and conclusions drawn will be challenging indeed to the beliefs of the followers of these faith.

 

The bringing to light of this material is, however,  necessary for the progression of mankind. This is no small claim, but in the following pages a full justification for this will be presented. I urge the reader to give serious consideration to the possibilities to be looked at in this chapter.

 

One of the key elements of learning is the ability to “unlearn”. As humans progress new things are discovered that mean old ideas have to be “unlearned”. It is a cliché, but for hundreds of years everyone thought the world was flat. Those claiming that it were round were labelled madmen. Challenging ideas and facts is essential to anyone holding any form of belief. It strengthens faith in that belief if it is proved to be true, or identifies areas of inconsistency if things to not balance.

 

In order to do justice to the signs and prophecies relating to the second coming we first need to have a full understand the first coming.

 

At the moment the case for the first coming has been made, but then problems and objections to it have been raised. It may be easy for Christians to dismiss these claims and say they are the work of the devil, but there has to be a solution to these criticisms.

 

The objections of the Jews are based on the Torah, a Holy Book; there must be a way to reconcile the differences.

 

 

 

 

 





 

 

In 1835 a man was born who was to turn the whole subject of Jesus and his return totally on its head. He started from very humble beginnings. He lived in a small, insignificant village in a little known town in India.

 




 

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was rejected. He was said to have abused his wide spread recognition gained through his literary works and made these incredulous claims for his own ends.

 

By some people he was branded the Anti-Christ itself.

 

(Read - Ahmad: The Guided One)


 

All true claimants to any prophesised post must first fulfil the conditions for that position. That we have seen Mirza Ghulam Ahmad did. In addition to this it is also essential that other signs of his truth are shown in his support of. Signs need to be shown occurring at the hand of the claimant. Jesus cured the sick and performed other miracles in the name of the Lord. His second advent had to show signs like this for the people to accept him. Signs are always sent in support of Allah’s messengers. This next section looks at a select few prophecies of the Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and examines their fulfilment.

 

Promise of a Special Son

 

At the time of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad the Hindu group known as the Arya Samaj were very active. They had decided to focus on trying to covert Muslims to Hinduism. Mirza sahib rose to this challenge and defended the Islamic faith every step of the way. The leader of the Arya Samaj, Pandit Lekh Ram, was a bitter enemy of Mirza sahib and he remained so till Lekh Ram’s death in fulfilment of another grand prophecy. The Arya Samaj in 1885 challenged Mirza sahib that if he was indeed the Promised Messiah then he should show a powerful sign so all would believe. The Promised Messiah accepted their challenge at once in September 1885.

 

In January 1886 he planned to move away for a period of solitude spending his entire time praying and supplicating to the All Mighty. He wanted a place where he would not be disturbed and would be able to devote his time to Allah. He also wanted a place with a near by mosque, but preferably one that was disused or in a very remote area. After investigations the location of Hoshairpur was selected and he travelled there. On his arrival people naturally flocked to see him. He was forced to have a poster produced as a message to the people. In it it talked about the significance of his stay here and he beseeched the people to allow him this solitary time and he pledged that after this 40 day period he would stay on for a while so those who wanted to meet him could fulfil their wish.

 

Thus Mirza sahib was allowed his 40 days. During this period he did not talk to anyone except when totally necessary. He was given a small house in a quiet and peaceful location. He took with him a few companions who helped fulfil his day to day needs of food and water, but apart from this he was totally in solitude. On Friday they would pray at the near by mosque that had been allocated to them.

 

On February 20th 1886 whilst still in Hoshairpur he published a handbill detailing the revelation form God in the form of a prophecy. This publication contained the following section:

 

“Rejoice, therefore, that a handsome and pure boy will be bestowed on thee. Thou will receive a bright youth who will be of thy seed and will be of thy progeny. A handsome and pure boy will come as your guest. His name is Emanuel and Bashir. He has been invested with a holy spirit and will be free from all impurity. He is the light of Allah. Blessed is he who comes from Heaven. He will be accompanied by grace which shall arrive with him. He will come into the world and will heal many of their disorders through his Messianic qualities and through the blessing of the Holy Spirit. He is the Word of Allah for Allah’s mercy and honour have equipped him with the word of Majesty.

 

He will be extremely intelligent and understanding and will be meek of heart and will be filled with secular and spiritual knowledge. He will convert three in to four. It is Monday, a blessed Monday. Son, delight of heart, high ranking, noble; a manifestation of the First and the Last, a manifestation of the True and the High; as if Allah has descended from Heaven. His advent will be greatly blessed and will be a source of manifestation of Divine Majesty. Behold a light cometh, a light anointed by God with the perfume of his pleasure. We shall pour our spirit in to him and he will be sheltered under the shadow of God. He will grow rapidly in stature and will be the means of procuring the release of those held in bondage. His fame will spread to the ends of the earth and peoples will be blessed through him. He will then be raised to his spiritual station in Heaven. This is a matter decreed.”

 

Later in March 1886 he published that on divine revelation he had been informed that this prophecy would be fulfilled within a period of 9 years.

 

Soon after this declaration his wife was pregnant. Mirza sahib was silent about if this was fulfilment of the prophecy. The baby turned out to be a baby girl and at once the opponents started their ridicule and mockery of Mirza sahib. Then in 1887 he was blessed with a son, who unfortunately passed away in 1888 at the tender age of 14 months. At this difficult time the opponents of Mirza sahib were vocal in their insults.

 

In December 1888 Mirza sahib published a small leaflet in which he stated the true meaning of the prophecy. He said how it mentioned “a guest” and he said this meant he would be given one son who would only be amongst us as a guest or visitor. He re-iterated that he had at no time said either of the two children were fulfilment of the prophecy and that he had full faith that the prophecy would be fulfilled in the 9 year period.

 

On 12th January 1889 was blessed with a son who Allah informed him was the fulfilment of this prophecy. The prophecy had been fulfilled but it was his life as Khalifatul Masih II in which the Promised Son was to shine. Sadly the Promised Messiah was not here to witness the great level to which his most illustrious son rose, but this sign is one that was present for all the rest of us to see and witness.

Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad

 

The Promised Son lead a simple life in his youth. It was in his teenage and on the advent of his father’s demise that he began to shine forth with the light that showed he was a fulfilment of the grand prophecy of the Promised Messiah.

 

“During the lifetime of the Promised Messiah he had developed a strong desire for religious services, hence when the Promised Messiah, during the last days of his life, appealed to the youth to come forward to serve Islam, Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad offered himself and soon formed Anjuman Tashheezul Azhaan and under its supervision, started a magazine by the same name, through which the work of religious preaching was carried out. At the time of the Promised Messiah's demise he was only 19 years of age, even at that time, highly convincing and silencing replies to the criticism flowed from his august pen. On 26th May 1908, the Promised Messiah (peace be on him) passed away at Lahore. At that moment this promised son stood by the bed of the Promised Messiah and vowed:

 

"Even if all the people leave you and I am left alone I would stand by you and would face all opposition to and onslaughts on your Mission."

 

After the demise of Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin, the first successor of the Promised Messiah, Mirza Bashir Ahmad took the position of Khalifa. He became the second successor to the Promised Messiah at the tender age of 25.”

 

Prophecy Concerning Lekh Ram

 

At the time of the Promised Messiah the Arya Samaj sect were very active. Their leader, Pundit Lekh Ram, held back in no way in his filthy attacks at the Holy Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (saw). The Promised Messiah refuted these as best as he could. Lekh Ram was constant in his foul abuse of the Holy Prophet of Islam (saw). The Promised Messiah turned to Allah for help against this most cruel enemy. Allah revealed to the Promised Messiah:

 

 

“A miserable half-dead calf; nothing awaits it but disgrace and destruction”

(Karanatus-Sadiqin)

 

 

The Promised Messiah made the following announcement on February 20th 1893:

 

“Within six years from today, this man will be overtaken by severe torment as a punishment for the disrespect which he has shown towards the Holy Prophet (saw).”

(Announcement of February 20th 1893 attached to A’ina Kamalat-I-Islam)

 

Lekh Ram did not flinch in the slightest at this prophecy. He even had the audacity to not only ridicule the prophecy, but to even publish one of his own saying the Promised Messiah would die of cholera within three years.

 

In April 1893 Hazrat Ahmad published a vision he had:

 

“This morning in the course of a light slumber I saw that I was sitting in a large room where some of my friends were present when a well0built man of terrible appearance, as if blood would burst forth from his face, came and stood before me. When I raised my eye towards him I perceived that he was a person of strange build and character, as if he was not a man but was one of the severe terrible angels who overawe all hearts. As I looked at him he asked me : “Where is Lekh Ram?” and he also named another person and inquired where he was. Then I understood that this person had been appointed for the chastisement of Lekh Ram and the other person…”

(Ahmadiyyat: The Renaissance of Islam, Muhammad Zafrullah Khan, Tabshir Publications 1978 p 75)

 

In a poem the Promised Messiah referred to Lekh Ram with the powerful words:

 

“Beware O’ foolish and misled enemy.

Fear the cutting sword of Muhammad (saw)”

 

In “Karamatus-Sadiqin”, an Arabic poem, the Promised Messiah wrote that Allah had revealed to him that a day close to the celebration of Eid would be the day of fulfilment of a mighty prophecy.

 

On March 6th 1987 Lekh Ram met with his fate. Lekh Ram was murdered in his house in Lahore, despite it being well guarded. He was stabbed and killed. His murderer was said to be fierce looking man who had come to Lekh Ram as a ‘seeker of the truth’. It turned out that he was set to accept the Hindu faith, but on the day of his conversion he turned on Lekh Ram stabbing him fatally. This person disappeared without trace and was never found.

 

The events spoke for themselves. The grand way in which the words of the prophecy were fulfilled was a clear sign for all to see. One of the Promised Messiah’s big opponents was removed. The Arya Samaj attacked the Promised Messiah saying he had conspired to murder Lekh Ram. The Promised Messiah rejected this saying it was Allah who had ordained it.

 

This great sign was witnessed first hand by over 3000 Muslims and Hindus, but the reports of the event will be there as a permanent sign for those wishing to judge the claim of the Promised Messiah and a warning for those who dare to insult the person of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw).


Alexander Dowie

 

(find out information about this from current sources too)




Appendix A – Evidence of Jesus’ Survival



 

 

 

The importance of the Turin Shroud has easily passed many observers by. The public exhibitions of the piece of cloth, along with the scientific tests on the cloth all seemed to be done in vain when the carbon dating results showed the cloth to be dated between 1260 and 1390 AD with a 95% confidence interval.

 

Only a thorough and deep investigation in to this relic of the Church reveals not only its amazing proof of authenticity, but also the secret that lead to powers in the Vatican ensuring it was discredited and shown to be a fake. Unfortunately for the Vatican many of the findings and measurements of the shroud were already in the public domain around the time of the announcements of the results. Many people swallowed the bait, but the many scientists stuck doggedly to their belief in the shroud, and still do.

 

The question arises as to why would the Vatican seek to discredit a relic they have for generations exhibited as proof of their Christ and Savior?

 

This whole topic is examined quite fantastically by Holger Kersten in his book The Jesus Conspiracy. Kersten takes the reader on a fantastic journey as his crusade to come to the bottom of inconsistencies he finds in the shroud’s dating process lead him on to one of the biggest secrets of our age.

 

Before any ‘secret’ or ‘hidden message’ contained in the Shroud is extracted at its authenticity first needs to be established. Thankfully the Shroud has already been placed under the microscope, quite literally, by the STURP (Shroud of Turin Research Project) team. Their pain staking examination of the Shroud lead to many of them publishing books on the subject.

 

For a full detailed analysis of the Shroud the reader should go to www.shroud.com or look at a copy of The Shroud of Turin: The Illustrated Evidence by Ian Wilson. Both these sources allow us to see for ourselves the amazing detailed contained in the Shroud. Kersten, in the Jesus Conspiracy, talks about “six stations of the cross reported in the Gospels”. These six marks on the Shroud provide very compelling evidence that the man of the Shroud had to be none other than Jesus Christ.

 

Stations of the Cross

 

1. Severe swelling under the eye.

 

The man of the shroud exhibits a swelling particularly under his eye. This would have occurred from the abuse at the hands of the Romans and could also possibly be from falling with the cross attached to his shoulders.

 

Text Box:

2. Flagrum leaving marks across the whole of the body.

 

There are marks particularly along the back side of the man of the shroud. These marks are dumbbell-shaped are over 90 of these such wounds can counted on the body. The wounds are clustered in groups of three and always in a regular form. This is precisely the sort of mark that the Roman flagrum would leave. It was a terrible instrument for inflicting pain. The round ends were made of bone or lead and it was used as a whip.

 

3. Smeared bloody so carried the cross on his back.

 

Paintings and movies suggest that Jesus (as) carried the cross on one shoulder at a time. This is not the view held by historians who say that the customary way was for the horizontal beam of the cross to be placed on the shoulders of the victim and the outstretched arms tied to it. The shroud shows smearing of blood on the back which is in line with carrying the cross in this way.

 

4. Irregular blood flow on the head showing he wore crown of thorns.

 

Large trickles of blood on the head, were found on the shroud, both front and back. This would suggest that the man of the shroud suffered injuries in multiple areas of the head. This “crown of thorns” was not a common practise and was used on Jesus (as) as he claimed to be the King of the Jews and it was done to mock him. Its historically been shown that this was more likely to be a “cap” of thorns rather than the crown that is shown by many artists. This is consistent with the injuries shown by the man of the shroud.

 


Text Box:  5. Cloth shows that nails were driven through the wrist.

 

Many works of art have shown the nails of crucifixion to have gone through the palms. Stigmata also appear on people’s palms. Interestingly though it has been proved that nails in the palm would not hold the weight of a body and simply rip through the flesh. Dr Pierre Barbet pioneered research in to this area demonstrating that there is a space in the wrist called the “Destot’s Space” that a nail can easily pass through.

 

6. Oval wound on the right side where the spear would have gone in.

 

The piercing of Jesus’ side in John 19:34 matches with a big area of blood on the right side of Jesus. The man of the shroud’s blood spillage suggests a piercing of the side between the 5th and 6th rib.

Could it Still be a Painting?

 

One finding that should have ruled out all talk of someone having painted the shroud was the discovery that the samples of cloth, that were stained deep red from the shroud, test positive for blood. 11 independent results all returned positive results for the samples being blood. DNA was even extracted from this blood and identified as human, prompting the book “The DNA of God?” by Leoncio A. Garza-Valdes

 

Peter Schumacher, using Nasa technology designed in the 1960s to take a relief shot and turn it in to a 3D model, produced a remarkable 3D image of the man of the shroud. He argued this alone was proof enough that it could not have been a painting. This was based on the fact that the further the skin surface from the cloth the lighter the imprint.

 

This seemingly blows the painting theory out the water. If the shroud is then genuine what about the carbon dating result?

 

 

Fraud of the Century

 

Holger Kersten’s The Jesus Conspiracy is a fantastic piece of investigative journalism. Kersten then, with the help of Elmar Gruber examine why the Vatican would want to discredit the shroud.

 

In the book the authors demonstrate how evasive and unconvincing the people interviewed about the Shroud’s dating process were. They uncover numerous inconsistencies and errors in the reporting of the process. Huge holes are exposed in the dating process, and it soon becomes clear that these are not due to carelessness, but as a result of careful calculation and planning from the anonymous ‘powers that be’ in the Vatican.

 

Why bother going to such lengths? What secret could the shroud possibly contain that meant the Vatican had to discredit what had been one of their most treasured relics? Clues lie in the way the image was formed.

 

This team, and many experts have openly declared that the image formation is a mystery still. The Turin Shroud – the illustrated evidence written by 2 members of the STURP team even have chapter in their book named “How the image got there remains a mystery”. The way this subject of image formation examined is interesting. There is a total assumption that the man of the shroud was totally dead when placed in the shroud. This is a biggest obstacle to them solving the mystery. Finding a way in which a cold, dead body could leave an imprint like that shall remain a mystery. One scientist, Sam Pellicori, proposed a theory that has been used to replicate similar images that have had very similar results to the original shroud. This process is based on a reaction between the herbs rubbed in to the body of Jesus (aloe and myrrh), urea in his sweat, skin oils, and body heat causing the image to form. This process is rejected by the STURP team as for this to have occurred the body would have to be alive!

 

This is the startling revelation. The Shroud of Turin could not have been formed by the body of a dead man. If the world is to believe all the evidence that points to it being the image of Jesus (as) then they must also believe that he was still alive at this point. Ian Wilson in The Turin Shroud – the illustrated evidence labels anyone claiming that Jesus, or whoever the man in the shroud was, was still alive as “non-medical sensationalists who periodically cause trouble by saying that a dead body cannot bleed.”

 

The manner in which this theory is dismissed shows the authors attachment to the authenticity of the shroud and also to his Christian beliefs. It has been shown by Abubakr Ben Salahuddin, author of Saving the Savior, that the STURP team are far from objective scientist in this field of research. It is strongly suggested that their religious views and bias have hindered them finding the truth about the image formation.

 

The shroud proves that the man in it was not dead at all when placed in the shroud. Suddenly the Church’s most valued relic became a time bomb that had to be distinguished immediately, thus it was discredited and abandoned.

 

The STURP team, who had worked with the shroud for so many years, were obviously not about to accept the findings so readily. Ian Wilson was even able to show very convincing evidence that the Shroud can in fact be traced back through history right back to the 1st Century AD.

 

This is of course a very controversial topic and subject area. The idea that the Shroud proves the man of the Shroud survived is accepted by a growing number of experts.

Kurt Berna, a German Catholic, was the first person to  formally put forward the theory that the shroud markings show that Jesus survived the crucifixion.

 

His book, Christ did not Perish on the Cross, caused much controversy. This man became a constant thorn in the side of the Church. He continually wrote to the Vatican and put forward his case. He argued that it was the suffering of Christ that was to be the atonement needed for the sins of the world. He said that Jesus not dying on the cross did not in any way weaken the Christian faith, on the contrary, his survival and recovery were miracles and powerful signs of the truth of Christ.

 

The theory has been presented more recently by Holger Kersten. Both Berna and Kersten also show how this survival of Jesus from the cross is in perfect harmony with the accounts of the Gospels.

 

More Evidence of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s Claim?

 

All Muslims believe one of the jobs assigned to the Jesus Christ when he returns was to “break the cross”. Ahmadis interpret this as metaphorical, meaning that the Messiah will ‘break’ the belief held that Jesus died on the cross. He would be ‘breaking the myth of the cross’. The evidence of the Shroud or Turin is still being unearthed. The cross is being broken and it is fascinating to think that this cloth that has been around for two thousand years is only now showing its hidden truths, after the advent of the person Ahmadis believe was the 2nd coming of Jesus.


 

This is indeed a vast subject. The reason the topic has been taken to an appendix is because other authors have covered this topic extensively, and to limit its content to one chapter would not do justice to their work.

 

The consequences of this theory are so widespread and far reaching that the material becomes very controversial and so a deeper study of it is needed.

 

The first person to put forward a coherent theory about Christ’s survival from the cross, and journey to India and burial there was Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian. His book Jesus in India is a must read for a seeker of the truth.

 

The arguments in the book are convincing and powerful.

 

It is argued that this theory was a total fabrication on Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s part and just a vice for strengthening his claim. Many Muslims who do not accept Mirza Ghulam Ahmad view the Jesus in India theory as something dreamed up by the Ahmadis to try and reconcile the problems caused by a spiritual second coming.

 

For people holding that view I wish to illustrate how incorrect this view is by simply listing the authors who have written on this subject, who have nothing to do with Mirza Ghulam Ahmad or the Ahmadiyya movement.

 

TITLE

AUTHOR

If Jesus did not die on the Cross? A Study of Evidence

Judge E B Docker

Dug Jesus pa korset? (Did Jesus Die on the Cross?)

Hugo Toll

Jesus In Rome

Robert Graves and Joshua Podro

Rauzabal and other Mysteries of Kashmir

Mohammad Yasin

Christ in Kashmir

Aziz Kashmiri

The Myth of the Cross

Al Haj A.D Ajijola

Jesus Died In Kashmir

Andreas Faber-Kaiser

Jesus Lived in India

Holger Kersten

Lost Cities of China, Central Asia and India

David Chlldress

The Fifth Gospel

Fida Hussnain + Dahan Levi

Jesus and Mosses are Buried in India

Gene Matlock

Jesus In India

James Deardorff

A Search for the Historical Jesus

Fida Hussnain

From Palestine to Kashmir

P Choudhry

In Search of the Loving God

Mark Mason

The Christ Conspiracy

Joseph Macchio

King of Travellers: Jesus' Lost Years in India

Edward T Martin

 

This evidence should be sufficient for the doubters. Of course the Jesus in India theory is crucial to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s Claim, yet it cannot be branded an Ahmadi concoction with all these authors writing on the subject from different backgrounds. Amongst the authors are lawyers, a judge, a Scholar of comparative religion, A Nigerian Muslim, a German theologian, many Americans, a Swede and an Indian Sufi Muslim.

 

People from many varied and mixed religious and geographical backgrounds have commented on this subject, so it is far from “An Ahmadi invention”.

 

 



 

Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, Mesih Hindustan Mein (Jesus in India)

Ahmad, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood, Invitation to Ahmadiyyat

Ahmad, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood, Introduction to the Study of the Holy Quran

Ahmad, Mirza Tahir, Christianity – A Journey from Facts to Fiction

Ahmad, Mirza Tahir, Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge and Truth

Adamson, Iain, Ahmad – The Guided One

Bengalee , Sufi Mutiur Rahman, Tomb of Jesus

Davies, Kirk, Earth’s Final Hours

Graves, Kersey, The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors: Christianity Before Christ

Hussnain, Dr Fida, Search for the Historical Jesus

Kersten, Holger, The Jesus Conspiracy

Notovitch, Nicholas, The Unknown Life of Jesus Christ

Salhuddin, Abubakr Ben Ishmael, Saving the Savior

Shams, J D, Where did Jesus Die?

Unknown, The Crucifixion By An Eye Witness – Indo American Book Co.

Zirvi, Dr Karimullah, Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, The True Islam

Wilson, Ian, The Turin Shroud : The Illustrated Evidence

Wilson, Ian, The Blood and the Shroud

 


WEBSITES:

 

www.alislam.org – Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Home Page

http://cfmbnainoach.freeyellow.com/jesusnot.html - Jesus is Not the Messiah!

http://www.messiahrevealed.org – Messiah Revealed

http://www.geocities.com/logic_faith/intention.htm - Jesus was not the Messiah

http://www.islamicvoice.com/september.97/comp.htm - That Statement of Jesus

www.tombofjesus.com – The Tomb of Jesus Website

http://messiahpage.com/htmldocs/whynotj.html - Why Jesus did Not Qualify

http://www.torah.org/ - Online Torah lessons

http://www.execulink.com/~wblank/theretrn.htm - Return of Jesus Christ

http://www.geocities.com/athens/olympus/4609/JW/returned.htm#jwbeleifs– Has Christ Invisibly Returned?

http://www.mt.net/~watcher/namethatmessiah.html - Name that Messiah

http://www.angelfire.com/ri2/gideonbernstein/ - Is Jesus really the Jewish Messiah?

 




B

Buddhism

Metteyya, 8

return of Buddha, 7

E

Elijah

ascension, 14

prophecy of his return, 13

purpose of advent, 13

return, 16, 22

H

Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, 2

L

Lekh Ram, 3841

S

Second Coming

spiritual, 17

Shroud of Turin, 46–57

Carbon Dating Result, 48, 53

crown of thorns, 51