"And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring,
and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd."
1. The Followers
2. Mention of Jesus in the Ninth book of the Hindu Puranas, the Bhavishya Maha Purana
3. Mention of Jesus in Rauzat-us-Safa
4. Mention of Jesus in Ikmal-ud-Din
5. Mention of Jesus in the Buddhist book, Book of Balauhar and Budasaf (Yuz Asaf)
6. Mention of Jesus in the Qisa Shazada Yuzasaph wo hakim Balauhar
7. Mention of Jesus in Tarikh-i-Kashmir
8. Mention of Jesus in Tarikh-i-Kashmir (unknown author)
9. Mention of Jesus in the ancient Chinese document, The History of Religion and Doctrines--the Glass Mirror
10. Mention of Jesus in the Tarikh-i-Kabir Kashmir
11. Mention of Jesus in the Wajees-ut-Tawarikh
12. Mention of Jesus in The Bagh-i-Sulaiman (Garden of Solomon)
13. Mention of Jesus in an Official decree of the Grand Mufti of Kashmir
14. Mention of Jesus on the sign post outside the Roza Bal
15. The sculpted footprints of Jesus Christ
16. Colors of the The House of David
17. Mention of Jesus in the Acta Thomae, a Christian work
18. The Ain-ul-Hayat
19. Mention of Jesus on the Takhat Sulaiman (Throne of Solomon) monument in Srinagar
20. Jesus gets married and has children
course, there is only one way to prove that Jesus Christ survived the crucifixion, and that is to determine whether or not there exists any record of his life after the crucifixion. And here again we feel obliged to register a mild note of discontent regarding Western writers, but even more particularly, Christian writers. At this website, we get email claiming that the documents mentioning the sojourn of the man believed to be Jesus Christ throughout Asia are bogus. No one ever offers any reason why they believe that the evidence is bogus. But we think we can offer one reason for their charges of *some* of these people: bias
One hesitates to interject such a subject into this important discussion. So that the reader will not think that we are speaking emotionally, however, we would like to reproduce an observation offered by Mr. Zacharias Thundy, author of the book, Buddha and Christ: Nativity Stories and Indian Traditions. Radhakrishnan was an Asian scholar who was considered to have been the foremost scholar of comparative religious studies during the 1950s. Thundy says the following about Radhakrishnan:
“According to him [Radhakrishnan], the real reason that Western scholars appeal to natural evolution to explain the similarities found between Christ and Buddha is that ‘those who are trained in European culture, find it irksome, if not distasteful, to admit the debt of Christian religion to non-Christian sources, especially Hindu and Buddhist.’”
But Thundy also boldly and honestly offers his own observations:
“The history of Western colonialism seems to have given ample support to Kipling’s fear: ‘For East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet.’ During the last five centuries of colonial expansion, the colonial powers were not interested in understanding the natives, their religions, and their ideologies. They were driven by crass materialism, which sought to exploit the colonies without much opposition from the Christian moral code. This attitude is echoed in Kipling’s doggerel:
‘Ship me somewhere East of Suez Where the best is like the worst, Where there aren’t no ten commandments, And a man can raise a thirst.’
“‘Those of us who have lived with Europeans in India and the West during the colonial period and after know that most of them as a rule carry the ‘White Man’s Burden’ (Kipling) and the conception of the Orientals as ‘lesser breeds without the law’ (Macaulay); like colonial masters everywhere, they were not accustomed to consider the Easterners as their equals.
“As Radhakrishnan’s observation cited earlier points out, in general, Western scholars, though fascinated by Eastern wisdom, have always found it hard to admit that the West could ever have borrowed anything of worth from the East or the East was ever equal or superior to the West in their cultural accomplishments.
“This ‘critical’ myopia or misguided elitism is called ‘Eurocentrism,’ which describes a provincial outlook that focuses overwhelmingly on European and Western culture while giving short shrift of Asia, Africa and Latin America...
“One reason for the
growth of Eurocentrism is probably that most Europeans share the Hegelian
view of the East, which combines the Romantic glorification of the East’s
antiquity with the rejection of the relevance of it for the present.”
So it is not surprising that the Asian sources and documents that we will present below might not be given proper consideration by Western scholars or by Christians at large. In the first place, the documents demonstrate that Jesus Christ survived the crucifixion. So, quite naturally, Christians would quickly label such documents as bogus or hoaxes, etc. Secondly, even in today’s enlightened Internet age there do exist cultural biases against the East in general. As such, we present the following information not for the purpose of seeking verification, nor do we wish or need that the information be given any particular approval before it is made known to the people of the West at large.
In our view, the documents speak for themselves. Yet, to be perfectly fair and honest, we must state that one does wish that the documents would be given scrutiny by those in our Western countries who are gifted in the languages of the East, particularly Persian. For even the suspicion of bias should not be a barrier for the Western scholars to use all the means at their disposal to scrutinize these ancient documents and, as the old saying goes, “let the chips fall where they may.” Keep in mind that we do receive new documents occasionally, and you should periodically check the Ancient Documents page to see if any new document has been added.
The question concerning the location of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel has been resolved in great detail in the Lost Tribes link. Let’s look at a number of sources that document the presence of Jesus Christ in various locations, on his way Eastward to India after the ordeal of the cross.
“The Followers of Issa, son of Mariam [Jesus, son of Mary], generally call themselves Muslims, and inhabit a number of villages scattered throughout the western area of Afghanistan whose center is Herat. I have heard of them several times, but considered that they were probably the people who had been converted by the European missionaries from eastern Persia, or that they were a relic of the time when Herat had been a flourishing bishopric of the Nestorians, before the Arabs conquered Persia in the seventh and eighth centuries. But, from their own accounts, and from what I could observe, they seem to have come from a much older source. There must be about a thousand of these Christians. Their chief is Abba Yahiyya (Father John), who can recite the succession of teachers, through nearly sixty generations, to Issa, son of Mariam of Nasara [Nazareth], the Kashmiri.”
The quote clearly states that Jesus Christ taught in Afghanistan and attracted a following of people, the descendants of whom refer to themselves as The Followers of Issa. But does this place him in Afghanistan after the event of the crucifixion? Burke continues:
“Jesus, according to the community, was a carpenter and also a shepherd...The ‘Traditions of the Masih’ (anointed one) is the holy book of the community. They do not believe in the New Testament; or, rather, they say that these Traditions are the New Testament, and that the Gospels, which we have, are partly true but generally written by people who did not understand the teachings of the Master [Jesus].
“Abba Yahiyya, a towering figure with the face of a saint, was certainly an erudite man, and he knew his own scriptures, plus a great deal of the Jewish writings, very well indeed. He had heard of the teachings of the ‘heretics’ as he called what we would call the various sects of Christians known to us, and he wanted no part of them.
“‘My son,’ he said, in his softly accented Persian, ‘these people are reading and repeating a part of the story. They have completely misunderstood the message. We have the story told to us by the Master [Jesus], and through him we will be saved and made whole. Some of the events in that document which you call the Bible are true, but a great deal is made up or imagined or put in for less than worthy reasons. Isa lived for over thirty years after the materials you have were completed, and he told us what was true.
“‘Briefly, the doctrine is that Jesus was the son of God because he had attained that rank through his goodness and sacrifices. Thus he was equal to a divine person. He came after John the Baptist, who himself had reached the highest degree of development possible at that time. John baptized him with water, Jesus with spirit and fire. These were the three stages of understanding, which were taught by our Christians.’
“There was a great deal of confusion at first, because I was talking about sacraments and being saved, while it took me some time to realize that Abba John’s people saw baptism, the Holy Ghost and the Kingdom of God to be three stages in a system of human illumination. This is what they claim is the function of the Church: the preservation of an administration of these three ‘developments’ for the worshipers.
“There is a ritual meal, like the Last Supper, but this is carried out once a week. Bread and wine are eaten, but as symbolic of the grosser and finer nutritions that are the experiences of attainment of nearness to God.
“While it is possible to consider these people as mere heretics, or else as followers of someone else who impersonated Jesus, yet I was singularly impressed by their piety, their feeling of certainty, their simplicity and lack of the unpleasant forms of fervor which one often finds in minority cults. They were convinced, too, that the day would come when the world would discover the truth about Jesus.”
The reader will note that the Followers of Jesus claim that Jesus taught a message quite similar to the Gnostic one we studied earlier, as well as the message contained in the documents discovered by Nicholas Notovitch amongst the Buddhists. Baptism, the Holy Ghost, and the Kingdom of God were three stages of illumination. This idea is contrary to the current Christian doctrine that places Jesus as the intermediary between human beings and perfect knowledge of God. Is it simply “coincidental” that three different groups of people, living in different parts of the world—the Gnostics Christians, the Followers of Jesus in Afghanistan, and the Buddhists of Tibet—shared an understanding of the teachings of Jesus Christ that was exactly the same, and yet totally at variance with what is now called “Christianity”?
There are eighteen books of the Hindus called the Puranas. The ninth book, the Bhavishya Mahapurana , records an encounter of King Shalivahana with Jesus Christ near Srinagar long after the crucifixion. In contrast to the Gospels, the exact date of this book is clearly known. It was compiled by Sutta in the year 3191 of the Kaukikia Era. That corresponds to the year 115 AD. (Jesus Christ is believed to have died at age 120, so this account was compiled five years before his death). Alongside the oral tradition of The Followers of Jesus in Afghanistan, this written account is perhaps the most important of any of the documents recording the presence of Jesus long after the crucifixion, because it was written while Jesus, according to the theory, would still have been alive.
Christian scholars state that the only extant Gospels possibly dating to the first century are Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and Thomas. But they theorize that there may also have existed a Q document [see the discussion in the Buddhist link] that pre-dated these Gospels, and served as the source material for at least Matthew and Luke. This Q document is not available anywhere today. Though scholars assume its existence, we cannot know for certain whether it actually existed prior to the compilation of the Gospels. So the Bhavishya Mahapurana is an extant book that reveals information about Jesus Christ during his lifetime. So it can be suggested that the Bhavishya Mahapurana stands as a more reliable document than any of the Gospels, as it was not derived from a “Q” document, but is an original text. This is a very striking account:
"Shalivahan, who was a grandson of Bikrama Jit, took over the government. He vanquished the attacking hordes of Chinese, Parthians, Scythians and Bactrians. He drew a border between the Arians and the Mleacha (= non-Hindus), and ordered the latter to withdraw to the other side of India. One day, Shalivahan, the chief ot the Sakyas, went into the Himalayas. There, in the Land of the Hun (= Ladakh, a part of the Kushan empire), the powerful king saw a man sitting on a mountain, who seemed to promise auspiciousness. His skin was fair and he wore white garments.
"The king asked the holy man who he was. The other replied: 'I am called a son of God, born of a virgin, minister of the non-believers, relentless in search of the truth.' The king then asked him: 'What is your religion?' The other replied, 'O great king, I come from a foreign country, where there is no longer truth and where evil knows no bounds. In the land of the non-believers, I appeared as the Messiah. But the demon Ihamasi of the barbarians (dasyu) manifested herself in a terrible form; I was delivered unto her in the manner of the non-believers and ended in Ihamasi's realm.
"'O king, lend your ear to the religion that I brought unto the non-believers: after the purification of the essence and the impure body and after seeking refuge in the prayers of the Naigama, man will pray to the Eternal. Through justice, truth, meditation and unity of spirit, man will find his way to Isa in the center of light. God, as firm as the sun, will finally unite the spirit of all wandering beings in himself. Thus, O king, Ihamasi will be destroyed; and the blissful image if Isa, the giver of happiness, will remain forever in the heart; and I was called Isa-Masih.' After the king heard these words, he took the teacher of the non-believers and sent him to their pitiless land."(verses 16-33 of the third khanda of the Pratisarga parvan of the Bhavishya Mahapurana)
Here again we see a teaching similar to the Gnostic, Buddhist and Afghani versions that we studied earlier, with Jesus here stating that personal acts involving prayer, self-purification, the practice of truth and justice and the practice of meditation would bring human beings to God. In none of those four versions has Jesus spoken about himself as the object of worship or as a mediator through which one must go in order to reach God. And again, this idea is contrary to today’s Christian teachings.
The reader will notice above that the “holy man” used the indefinite article, “a” in describing himself as, “a son of God.” Recall the discussion on the Nazarenes (Ebionites) in the Jesus link in which we quoted verses of the Old Testament that mention Israel, Solomon, and David as God’s “sons.” As stated there, the Nazarenes referred to Jesus as “son of God,” and they used that appellation to describe his spiritual status, not his literal position as the sole Son of God. Also recall the previous section on The Followers of Jesus where the head of that community, Abba Yahya, said that Jesus bore the appellation, son of God, “because he had attained that rank through his goodness and sacrifices.”
Kersten states that the name “Isa,” or “Issa”, derives from the Syrian, Yeshu (Jesus), “being altered to conform to Musa (=Moses).” What is striking about the above account is that Jesus is mentioned by the name that he is known by in the scripture of Islam, the Quran. But the above document was compiled hundreds of years before the Quran was written. Also, the above document was written in Sanskrit—the language of the Hindus, a totally different religion. Since the name Isa appears in an ancient Hindu document as well as in the scripture of Islam, apparently it was a name by which Jesus was known in the East.
Although Kersten states that “Isa” is derived from the Syrian, Yeshu, the above verses seem to use the name Isa as an attributive name, and not as the actual personal name of Jesus. The reader will note that he stated: “…man will find his way to Isa in the center of light.” Then later he refers to himself as Isa-Masih—the Isa Messiah. So, could the word Isa actually have meant some kind of attribute of the Divine? Had this holy man been sent as the “Isa Messiah” to reestablish this special Divine attribute in those to whom he ministered? He defines Isa as, “the giver of happiness,” and does not seem to refer to himself by the name Isa. In short, he is the Messiah of Isa, or he is the Messiah for Isa. It seems that his mission was to teach spiritual practices that would lead to Isa, the giver of happiness, with the words “giver of happiness” being an attribute of God. As he states, “Through justice, truth, meditation and unity of spirit, man will find his way to Isa in the center of light.” It appears that Jesus Christ was teaching a spiritual prescription for finding happiness “in the center of light,” and the words “center of light” must certainly have been metaphorical for the Divine—for God. The word “light” refers not only to physical light. In religious literature of various religions, the word light refers to guidance. So the “center of light” or the center of all guidance would be God.
The reader will also notice the transliteration of the Sanskrit verses of the Bhavishya Mahapurana. This has not appeared at any other website or in any Jesus-in-India book (except Saving the Savior). You will note in the transliteration that the name, “isa masi” is clearly recorded in the first line of verse 26, and we have highlighted the name in bold type. Please note that verse numbers have been placed at the end of a given verse. So, verse 26 runs for two lines, and the actual number has been placed at the end of the verse on the second line. You will also note the name, “isa masiha” in the second line of verse 31, again in bold type.
Jesus was mentioned in a Persian
historical work known as the Rauzat-us-Safa,
written by Mir Muhammad Bin Khawand in 1417
A.D. The complete title of that book is, Rauza-tus-Safa
fi Sirat-ul-Ambia wal Muluk wal Khulafa (Gardens of Purity
concerning the biography of the Prophets and Kings and Caliphs).
It was published later, in the year 1852 AD, in Bombay. In this book, he
mentions a tradition regarding a visit by Jesus and Mary to Nasibain.
“Jesus (on whom be peace) was named the “Messiah” because he was a great traveler. He wore a woolen scarf on his head and a woolen cloak on his body. He had a stick in his hand; he used to wander from country to country and from city to city. At nightfall he would stay where he was. He ate jungle vegetables, drank jungle water, and went on his travels on foot. His companions, in one of his travels, once bought a horse for him; he rode the horse one day, but as he could not make any provision for the feeding of the horse, he returned it. Journeying from his country, he arrived at Nasibain. With him were a few of his disciples whom he sent into the city to preach. In the city, however, there were current wrong and unfounded rumors about Jesus (on whom be peace) and his mother. The governor of the city, therefore, arrested the disciples and then summoned Jesus. Jesus miraculously healed some persons and exhibited other miracles. The king of the territory of Nasibain, therefore, with all his armies and his people, became a follower of his. The legend of the ‘coming down of food’ contained in the Holy Quran belongs to the days of his travels.”
The author of Ikmal-ud-Din (the original title is, Kamal-ud Din wa Tmam-un Nimat fi Asbat-ul-Ghaibat wa Kashf-ul-Hairet), is Al-Shaikh Al-Said-us-Sadiq Abi Jaffar Muhammad Ibn-i-Ali Ibn-i-Hussain Ibn-i-Musa Ibn-i-Baibuyah al-Qummi, who died in Khorasan in 962 AD. He was a scholar who had traveled to many countries in order to research material for his book. He mentions the travels of Jesus Christ (Yuz Asaf) to Kashmir:
“Then Yuz Asaf, after roaming about in many cities, reached that country which is called Kashmir. He traveled in it far and wide and stayed there and spent his (remaining) life there, until death overtook him, and he left the earthly body and was elevated towards the Light. But before his death, he sent for a disciple of his, Ba’bad, by name, who used to serve him and was well versed in all matters. He expressed his last will to him and said: ‘My time for departing from this world has come. Carry on your duties properly and turn not back from truth, and say your prayers regularly.’ He then directed Ba’bad to prepare a tomb over him (at the very place he died). He then stretched his legs towards the West and head towards the East and died. May God bless him.”
Yuz Asaf taught in parables in the same manner as the Bible records that Jesus taught. Here is a sample of a parable of Yuz Asaf’s that parallels the famous sower-of-seeds parable mentioned by the Gospels:
“When a sower goes to sow and sows, some seeds fall by the wayside, and the birds pick up the seed. Some fall upon stray land, and when they reach the stony foundation they wither away. Some fall among thorns and grow not: but the seed that falls on the good land, grows and brings forth fruit. By the sower is meant the wise, by the seed is meant his words of wisdom. The seeds picked up by birds mean those people who understand not. The seeds on the stony ground are like the words of wisdom that go in one ear and out of the other. The seed that fell among the thorns are like unto those who hear and understand but act not accordingly. Other seeds which fall on good grounds are like those who hear the words of wisdom and obey.”
“And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow; And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up: Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them: But others fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some thirtyfold. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.”
Now in our view, the sower parable from Ikmal-ud-Din is very important. First, from the earlier quote we see that Shaikh Sadiq recorded the travels of Yuz Asaf and his eventual arrival in Kashmir. Second, he also recorded one of the important parables of Yuz Asaf. Now since orthodox Muslims have always believed that Jesus Christ ascended to heaven, as we discussed in the Islam link, then Shaikh Sadiq would have no reason to even suspect that Yuz Asaf and Jesus Christ were the same person, simply because of the fact that he was a Muslim who believed in Jesus’ ascension. Even if such a notion had come to his mind, he would have immediately dismissed it, because to entertain such an idea would have been a violation of his religious beliefs.
Also, it is far from likely that Shaikh Sadiq would have inserted this story, deceitfully citing it as a Kashmiri tradition. It is very unlikely because of the fact that the scripture of Shaikh Sadiq was the Quran, not the Bible. The parable of the sower of the seeds does not exist in the Quran, so why would Shaikh Sadiq have taken a Biblical parable that has no connection whatsoever to his own religious tradition and inserted it into his account of Kashmiri tradition? Again, he certainly wasn’t trying to destroy Christian belief by suggesting that Jesus was in Kashmir long after the Crucifixion, because to do so, as we stated above, would have meant the destruction of his own religious beliefs as well, since both orthodox Muslims and orthodox Christians believe in the Ascension of Jesus Christ.
It is believed that the name Budasaf [Bud-Asaf] and Yuz Asaf refer to the same person. An entire Buddhist Book of Budasaf exists which mentions Budasaf (Yuz Asaf) in Kashmir. It says of Budasaf:
“And he reached Kashmir, which was the farthest region at which he ministered, and there his life ended. He left the world and bequeathed his inheritance to a certain disciple called Ababid who had served him. Everything that he did was perfect. And he admonished him and said to him, ‘I have found a worthy shrine and decorated it and brought in lamps for the dying. I have collected the flock with the true face, which had been dispersed and to whom I was sent. And now I shall draw breath through my ascent from the world, by the separation of my soul from my body. Obey the commandments that were given to you, and do not deviate from the path of truth but keep firmly to it in gratitude. And may Ababid be the leader.’ He then commanded Ababid to level off the place for him; he stretched his legs out and lay down. Then, turning his head northwards and his face eastwards, he passed away.”
The reader will note a discrepancy between the above Buddhist account of the death of Jesus Christ and that written in Ikmal-ud-Din. Whatever might be the explanation for why these accounts differ with regard to which direction Jesus faced his head just prior to the moment of his death, this is not to be confused, obviously, with the direction in which he was finally buried in the Roza Bal. The real sarcophagus containing the remains of Yuz Asaf in the Roza Bal lies underground and could at one time be seen through a small aperture. It is interesting that that sarcophagus faces the direction that is in accordance with Jewish custom—east to west. Even considering that the account in Ikmal-ud-Din was referring to the direction he lay at the time of his death, that account is in accordance with the direction of the sarcophagus of Yuz Asaf in the Roza Bal, and must be considered a correct one. Some orthodox Muslims claim that Yuz Asaf is an Islamic saint. This idea cannot be correct because the tradition of Yuz Asaf in Kashmir goes back long before the Islamic period.
The Qisa Shazada Yuzasaph wo hakim Balauhar (The Story of the Prince Yuzasaph and the Philosopher Balauhar) is another fascinating Urdu version of the Book of Balauhar and Budasaf that gives an account of the sojourn of Yuz Asaf in Kashmir. To see the Urdu document, click here. This document comes from the the Khuda Baksh Library in Patna, India. Patna is the capital of Bihar province. Khuda Baksh, the person for whm the library was named, was a lover of books who collected thousands of manuscripts and books. The serial number of this book in the library collection is 48293. The translation below is taken from page 131 of that book
|"Departing from that town, he visited several other towns preaching to the people. At last he reached the capital city of Kashmir. Having settled there, he called all people towards the Kingdom of God. He stayed there in Kashmir till the last day of his life. At the moment [of his death] he called one of his disciples, who was known among the people by the name of Yabid. This disciple had served his master with much devotion and had obtained a high status in the spiritual succession. Now making his will, Yuzasaph said, 'Now at this last moment my spirit is ready to fly towards the Holy One. It is necessary for all of you to follow the Commandments of God. None should go towards the untruth leaving the truth. All of you should adhere to the prayers and hold fast to the truth.' After saying this, he breathed his last. Dear readers, much wisdom is contained in this story. Understand the hidden wisdom and follow moral and spiritual teachings so that desires for the material world are destroyed from your hearts." (Qisa Shazada Yuzasaph wo hakim Balauhar, p. 131)|
In his book, Tarikh-i-Kashmir, the historian, Mullah Nadri, made mention of Yuz Asaph, Jesus Christ, in Kashmir:
“After him his son Raja Akh (whose name was Ach), came to the throne. He ruled for sixty years. It is said that he founded the village (of) Achabaal in Kothar district. After him his son, Gopananda, took (the reigns of) Government and ruled the country under the name of Gopadatta. [During his reign] many temples were [built] and on top of Mount Solomon the dome [of the temple] became cracked. He deputed one of his ministers named Sulaiman, who had come from Persia to repair it. Hindus objected that he [the Minister] was an infidel [and belonged to] another religion.
“During this time Hazrat Yuz Asaf having come from Bait-ul Muqaddas [the Holy Land] to this holy valley proclaimed his prophethood. He devoted himself, day and night, in [prayers to] God, and having attained the heights of piety and virtue, he declared himself to be a Messenger [of God] for the people of Kashmir. He invited people [to his religion]. Because the people of the valley had faith in this Prophet, Raja Gopadatta referred the objection of Hindus to him [for decision]. It was because of this Prophet’s orders that Sulaiman, whom Hindus called Sandeman, completed [the repairs of] the dome. [The year was] Fifty and four. Further, on one of the stones of the stairs he [Sulaiman] inscribed: ‘In these times Yuz Asaf proclaimed his prophethood,’ and on the other stone of the stairs he also inscribed that he [Yuz Asaf] was Yusu, Prophet of the Children of Israel.
“I have seen in a book of Hindus that this prophet was really Hazrat Isa [Jesus], the Spirit of God, on whom be peace [and salutations] and had also assumed the name of Yuz Asaf. The real knowledge is with God. He spent his life in this [valley]. After his departure [his death] he was laid to rest in Mohalla Anzmarah. It is also said that lights of prophethood used to emanate from the tomb of this Prophet. Raja Gopadatta having ruled for sixty years and two months, [then] died…”
This is another very interesting recording. It shows that Mullah Nadri clearly gave an account of Yuz Asaf in Kashmir. He stated that Yuz Asaf came from the Holy Land, and that he proclaimed to be a prophet of the Children of Israel, or the Jews. Yet, up to that point, he had not equated this prophet with Jesus Christ. Then, as an objective historian, he recorded a Hindu tradition telling that Isa and Yuz Asaph were the same individual. And he recorded this Hindu tradition even though it was at variance with his own Islamic tradition.
It seems as though Mullah Nadri must have been influenced by this Hindu tradition in some manner. Rather than state that, “Of course my religion, Islam, says that Jesus ascended to heaven,” or just outright deny this Hindu tradition, or even worse, simply leave it out, he states, “The real knowledge is with God.” We think it is very significant that Mullah Nadri would not forcefully deny the tradition or even qualify it by airing his own religious views. Obviously, the Hindu tradition Mullah Nadri mentioned is the same one that records the meeting of King Shalivahana with Jesus Christ—the Bhavishya Mahapurana.
Also, you will notice that Mullah Nadri refers to Isa as the “Spirit of God.” This description of Isa as the “Spirit of God” seems to support our own view, expressed in the section on the Bhavishya Mahapurana, that the name Isa may not be a personal name but is instead attributive in nature.
The author of this Tarikh-i-Kashmir is unknown. Note that the document states that “six days after his crucifixion, Jesus visited several places.” To see the original Persian script, click here.
“In early writings, it is mentioned that seventy years after the demise of Alexander the Great, Jesus Christ was born. When he reached the age of thirty years, God raised him to the status of an apostle. At the age of thirty-three years, he proceeded from Palestine towards the Holy Valley [Kashmir]. It is mentioned in historical works that Jesus Christ reached Syria in company of his disciples and followers. It is written in authentic works that six days after his crucifixion, Jesus visited several places and met Zacharis and Mary and Disciples and then left for [an] unknown destination.”
The reference to the “Holy Valley” is speaking of Kashmir, which has been called the Valley of Eternal Peace, and other such names.
In his book, A Search for the Historical Jesus, Dr. Fida Hassnain , former Director of Kashmir State Archives and of Archeological Research and Museums, mentions a Tibetan manuscript he discovered called Grugtha Thams-chand kyi Khuna dan Dod-Thsul Ston-pe Legs Shad Shel-gyi Melong. (Recall Nicholas Notovitch ’s discovery that Buddhists in Tibet had within their possession ancient documents which recorded the comings and goings of “San Issa,” or “Yesu,” i.e., Jesus) containing information about Jesus. This Tibetan document, written by Le-zan Chhes-kyi Nima , was translated from an ancient Chinese document called, The History of Religion and Doctrines—The Glass Mirror : The relevant portions are reproduced below:
“Yesu, the teacher and founder of the religion, who was born miraculously, proclaimed himself the Savior of the world. He commanded his disciples to observe the ten vows [Ten Commandments], among which includes prohibition of manslaughter and attainment of eternal joy through good deeds. He preached that evil actions plunge one into hell, where there is eternal torment and misery. A sin committed in a state of consciousness cannot be condoned or pardoned. This is one of the virtuous results emerging out of the teachings of the Buddha. His doctrines did not spread extensively, but survived in Asia, for a long period. The above information is derived from the Chinese treatises on religions and doctrines.”
We find it interesting that the above document states that, except in Asia, the teachings of Yesu (Jesus) did not spread. When one considers the differences in the teachings of Yuz Asaf/Yesu when he was in Asia, and those of Christianity as it evolved in the West, one begins to understand the above quote. For, the primary focus of Western Christianity is the death of Jesus Christ for the sins of the world, but in the East that idea does not exist.
The Tarikh-i-Kabir Kashmir was published at Suraj Prakash Press in Amritsar, Punjab in 1902. On page 34 of Volume I of that work, Haji Mohiuddin says the following [To see the original script, click here]:
“Syed Nasir-uddin Khanyari is much revered for spending his life in piety and prayers. He was buried in the famous shrine known as the Rozabal Tomb. His grave is located towards the south of the holy grave of a prophet. As such, the shrine is known as the Site of the Prophet. Khawaja Azam Didmari writes that in the past a Prince, who absorbed himself in prayers and piety attained the station of a Messenger [of God] and was sent to this land for guidance of the people. His name was Yuzu-Asaph. After his death, he was buried here in Mohala Anzmar near Khanyar.
“Mulla Ahmad in his Asar-ul-Ikhyar has quoted that Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin deputed Syed Abdullah Bahaiqi as an Ambassador to Egypt and the Pharoah of Egypt deputed Yuzu-Asaph who was a progeny of Moses as his ambassador. The Shias believe that Yuzu-Asaph descended from Hazrat Imam Jafar-i-Sadiq. However in an Arabic manuscript, it is related the Prince came from Sholapit to Kashmir as a traveler and is buried in Anzmar, Khanyar, Srinagar. But more older information is available that [a] sweet smell used to come from one of the holes of [the] sarcophagus. A lady, who desecrated the tomb became mad. Others believe that it is [the] tomb of a great Prophet who is no other than Hazrat Isa--the Spirit of God.”
You will note from the above that the document presents various opinions regarding the identity of the prince who occupied the Roza Bal, the last one being that he was Hazrat Isa--Jesus Christ.
According to the Tarikh-i-Hassan, the Wajees-ut-Tawarikh was compiled in 1857 by Abdul Nabi Khanyari (Tarikh-i-Hassan, Vol. 1, p. 377). Abdul Nabi Khanyari was known by various names: Abdul Nabi, Naba Shah and Ghulam Nabi. It is to be noted that Raja Gopananda is mentioned in this excerpt, as you will see below, and he ruled over Kashmir during 49 to 109 A.D.
“The grave of Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin is in Khanyar. The place is also known as Rozabal. It is said that at that place exists the grave of Paigambar Yuzu Asaf. He was a prince who had come to this place. Due to his utmost piety and prayers, he was raised to the status of the Messenger (by God) for the people of Kashmir. He preached among the people. It is said that Raja Gopananda ruled over the country during that period. The aroma of musk used to emanate from a hole in the western wall.”
The appellation, “Paigambar” means, “Messenger of God.” So he is mentioned in this document as, “Messenger of God, Yuzu Asaph.”
The Bagh-i-Sulaiman is a Persian work written by Mir Saadullah Shahabadi Kashmiri in 1780 A.D. It is a history of Kashmir in Persian verse. Note that Yuzu Asaph was known all over Kashmir due to his “status of an Apostle,” and his guidance towards “the Truth.” He was called a “mercy” for the people of the Valley of Kashmir: Sayyid Naseeruddin Rizvi was a Muslim who had become devoted to the memory of Yuzu Asaf. Due to his devotion, in 1451, he was buried in the Roza Bal next to Yuzu Asaf/Jesus Christ.
“Virtuous Sayyid Naseeruddin: The assembly of believers owes its existence to him. His tomb exists in Khanyar in Anzimar. This tomb is significant because of the illuminated grave of a Prophet. All those who visit this sacred place receive aroma of perfumes! It has been narrated that a prince came, abandoned materialistic life, and adopted the path of piety and righteousness. God liked his obedience to Him [and] raised him to the status of an Apostle. He guided the people towards the Truth [and was] a mercy to the Valley (of Kashmir). It is due to this reason that his tomb is famous all over the country.”
The following decree was issued by the High Court in Kashmir, presided over by the Grand Mufti, a high ranking religious leader, and other judges. The decree clearly affirms that Yuzu-Asaph was sent as a prophet to the people of Kashmir, according to the traditions of the Kashmiri people. This decree was issued in the year 1774 A.D, although Dr. Fida Hassnain 's book, The Fifth Gospel, has the date as 1766 A.D.:
THE SEAL OF THE JUSTICE OF ISLAM
The following is the English translation of the information displayed on the signpost that stands outside the Tomb of Jesus Christ. The information contains the views of Khwaja Azam Deddmari , who compiled his Tarikh-i-Azam in about 1729 A.D..
“Nearby is situated the stone of the grave which, according to the people, is the prophet's who arrived from a far off place during ancient times. Anointed for Kashmir: This spot is famous as the resting place of a messenger: I have read in an ancient book that a prince from a foreign land arrived here and engaged himself in piety and prayers [and] became a messenger of God for the Kashmiri people. In that ancient book his name is mentioned as Yuz Asaf.”
In the letter from Maulvi Abdullah to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , Maulvi Abdullah mentioned that near the tomb of Yuz Asaf there existed a sculpted representation of the feet of Yuz Asaph that had been carved by some sculptor. The letter of Maulvi Abdullah was published November 30, 1898 in the book, Raz-i-Haqiqat ('Secret of the Truth'), as we learned in the section on Mirza Ghulam Ahmad .
Because of the fact that there exist various theories of how crucifixion victims were nailed to the cross, the position of the nail wounds on the carved footprints inside the Roza Bal would be disputed by some, since they show “nail” marks on the tops of the feet. For instance, the year1968 gave us the discovery of the first known actual remains of a crucifixion victim, whose name, from epigraphists’ reading of his ossuary’s inscription, had been Jehohanan. Dr Nicu Haas, of the Anatomy School at Jerusalem’s Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, deduced that Jehohanan’s feet had been nailed through the heels. In 1856 a graffiti representation of a crucifixion victim was found on the wall of the Domus Gelotiana, a palace of the Emperor Nero’s time (54-68 A.D.) on the Palatine Hill in Rome. This graffiti image also seemed to indicate that the victim in question had had his feet nailed through the heels.
Although the Shroud of Turin is variously believed to be a fake or genuine, depending on the scientist interpreting its markings, some say that it is obviously a good depiction—fake or not—of a crucifixion victim; meaning that even if the Shroud had been manufactured by an artist, he had an excellent understanding of the anatomy of a crucifixion [yet, recall our Shroud of Turin discussion, though, where it was shown that it would have been impossible for the Shroud to have been created by an artist in such a perfect manner, because no artist from the Middle-Ages would have had such expert understanding of human anatomy and physiology]. From the Shroud markings, two different opinions have been drawn with regard to the feet. One opinion states that the nail wound in the Man of the Shroud’s right foot can be seen as a slightly darker patch between his tarsal or toe bones. The other opinion states that the frontal image of the Shroud shows that the flow of blood at the victim’s feet appears to originate from the heel area.
But, as Ian Wilson stated in his 1998 book, The Blood and the Shroud:
“What cannot be emphasized enough is that all of the above interpretations are based on evidence that is far too fluid and ambiguous for anyone, whether Zias and Sekeles, Dr. Victor Webster, or myself, to claim that they represent the last word on the subject.”
Therefore, it is quite possible that the “nail” marks shown on the carved footprints of Yuz Asaf in the Roza Bal are correct for his particular crucifixion. And what may be more important than the precise location of the nail marks on the carving is the fact that the sculptor was trying to indicate that the Man of the Tomb had suffered an injury of some type to his feet.
But could some Islamic enemy of Christianity have created the carving? Here again it must be stated that it is absolutely impossible that Muslims sculpted these footprints for the purpose of creating a hoax in order to harm Christianity. Any Muslim claiming that Jesus was dead and buried in the Roza Bal would likely have been severely reprimanded by his Muslim brethren, if not punished or even killed. This is no exaggeration. To this day, members of the heterodox Ahmadiyya community, which believes that Jesus Christ lies dead and buried in the Roza Bal, are severely persecuted in Pakistan for this and other beliefs, as has been reported by the U.S. State Department. We reproduce an excerpt of that report to emphasize the seriousness with which many orthodox Muslims take this matter, and to show that we are not exaggerating when we state that non-orthodox teachings about Jesus or Muhammad or other issues of Islam can sometimes warrant death within the orthodox Islamic world:
“For example, according to the HRCP, in one case prior to 1999, Muhammad Akram was threatened with death by an influential local religious organization after he joined the Ahmadiyya community, whose members are regarded as non-Muslims under the Constitution. The threat was published on the organization's own letterhead, but no legal action has been taken against the group.”
As we saw in the Islam link, the idea that Jesus Christ might have survived the crucifixion is anathema to orthodox Muslims because of the fact that they believe that Jesus Christ is alive in heaven, waiting to return in the last days to establish Islam on this earth. As such, no Muslim would dare violate this orthodox teaching by perpetrating a hoax, because those teachings, as we saw earlier, are deeply embedded. So, whoever the sculptor was, he was sculpting exactly what he knew about the Man of the Tomb: that this man had been wounded in the feet. Dr. Hassnain states the following:
“It was in 1975 that I happened to visit the tomb of Yuzu Asaph along with a colleague of mine, Professor Ghulam Mohi-ud-din. We quietly entered the wooden sarcophagus through a side window...I also found a stone in a corner carved out with a niche to keep a lamp. In another corner was a stone slab fixed in the floor, covered with mud.
“We cleaned it, and to our astonishment the slab had foot impressions with traces of raised wound marks...Next day I took Mr. Bhan, curator of the state museum, with me, and he prepared a plaster cast of the slab. The result was marvelous. It was clear that whoever had chiseled this impression had seen Yuzu Asaph with these wound marks. Jesus had been put on the cross with nails stuck in his feet. Both Yuzu Asaph and Jesus had one thing in common: wound marks on their feet.”
“...The carving had been extraordinary, because on the one hand, raised wound marks were depicted, and secondly, two pads inside the soles of the feet were also shown. It came to light, many years later, that these pads were a clear proof of the genuineness of these feet impressions.
“A German scholar [Gunter Hoffmann], who had come to critically examine these foot-impressions, informed me that these pads [probably] had a special significance in relation to Jesus. During his travels he could have put pads under his soles so that the raised wounds would not irritate his feet. This extraordinary depiction of raised soles showed that the carver was genuine and his carving of the feet-wounds was real and genuine. He saw that there were wounds that had swollen the feet and deformed them. As such, he shows deformed feet, one foot a little different from the other. “Secondly, in one foot there is a little cavity or hole, which showed that one nail was stuck on both feet, placed over one another...”
Hassnain goes on to reproduce a letter that he had received from Kurt Berna of Ludwigsburg, Germany. Berna had taken an interest in the Shroud of Turin. When he heard about the stone carvings of the feet of Yuz Asaph, he wrote to Dr. Hassnain and asked him to send pictures. After Berna examined the pictures, he wrote Hassnain the following:
“'In this case, while it is very interesting to find the nail-wound reproduction of the left foot near the toes, the nail-wound reproduction of the right foot is exactly at the place where the classic view said it should be. This means [that] this man [Yuz Asaph] has been crucified with the left foot over the right foot and only one nail was going through the feet.
“'These are not necessarily the real foot-prints of the man in the tomb. Yet the imprint-maker gave prominence to the signs that the man underneath the tombstone had been crucified, and he did have such marks at these places on the soles of the feet, distinguishing marks!
“'Fact: a crucified man is in the tomb, but if we look on the Holy Shroud of Christ in Turin, we find that the left foot was nailed over the right foot on the cross, because the left knee inside the shroud was more bowed and stiff than the right leg. [This is] A further indication that the man from the Turin Shroud and the person under the Srinagar tomb are the same!”
Dr. Hassnain's 1975 account of these footprints verifies Maulvi Abdullah's 1898 report.
I have received some information that the Tomb of Yuz Asaf was at one time painted blue and white. After checking further, I discovered that older pictures of the tomb of Jesus Christ reveal that the doors or windows were painted blue-green in color, while the walls are white. It is interesting that blueish-green was the color of the tribe of Judah. The term "House of David" refers to being descended from King David, and King David was of the tribe of Judah. Though Christians believe that Jesus was born of a virgin woman, Mary, they also consider him to be a descendant of David, thereby being of the "House of David." Why was the tomb of Yuz Asaf formerly painted with a blue-green color? Why is the actual casket of Yuz Asaf, which lies underground and could once be seen through a small aperture, faced in the direction that the Jews bury their dead? Could the person who painted the tomb of Yuz Asaf have been following the wishes of Yuz Asaf in choosing the blue-green to paint his final resting place? Is this another clue that Yuz Asaf was actually Jesus Christ, a "descendant" of David?
The Bible claims that Jesus was born to Mary, who was married to Joseph "of the house of David."
Above is a photograph of a side of the Roza Bal, the tomb of Yuz Asaf. Notice the blue-green color of the edge of the windows as well as the blue-green strip that looks to be about one and one-half foot underneath the window, running along the side of the building. As stated above, blue-green was the exact color of the tribe of Judah. It appears obvious that the walls of the tomb were painted white so that the blue-green color of the windows, doors and strip would be highlighted. You may see this and other pictures of famous tombs in Kashmir at the Kashmir: Sufis, Saints and Shrines web site.
The lineage of Joseph, husband of Mary the mother of Jesus, is listed in the first 16 verses of Matthew in the Bible:
1 The book of the generation
of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.
So, if Luke 1, 26-31 and the first 16 verses of Matthew are to be believed, then Jesus Christ would have been identified as belonging to the House of David, and would have identified with the colors of the tribe of Judah. Indeed, it would have been befitting that his burial place would bear the blue-green colors of the tribe of Judah.
In the Lost Tribes link we saw that the Apostle Thomas had been assigned to go to India to preach the message of Jesus Christ. The Acta Thomae, though, also records an account showing that Jesus Christ was in Taxila at a marriage ceremony, along with Thomas, in the year 49 CE, a good number of years after the crucifixion. This account verifies St. Irenaeus’s observations (see Irenaeus link), recorded in his Against Heresies, that Jesus was seen alive in Asia long after the event of the cross. The Acta Thomae is a Christian work, though it was declared heretical in the year 495 C.E. by a decree of Gelasius.
In the following account, the bridegroom saw whom he thought was Thomas talking to his new bride, but it was not Thomas. Both Thomas and Jesus attended this wedding, and one of them was often mistaken for the other:
“Thomas after the ceremonies left the palace. The bridegroom (Abdagases) lifted the curtain that separated him from his bride. He saw Thomas, as he supposed, conversing with her. Then he asked in surprise: ‘How Canst though be found here? Did I not see thee go out before all?’ And the Lord answered: ‘I am not Thomas, but his brother.’”
Here is another translation of this account:
“11 And the king desired the groomsmen to depart out of the bride-chamber; and when all were gone out and the doors were shut, the bridegroom lifted up the curtain of the bride-chamber to fetch the bride unto him. And he saw the Lord Jesus bearing the likeness of Judas Thomas and speaking with the bride; even of him that but now had blessed them and gone out from them, the apostle; and he saith unto him: ‘Wentest thou not out in the sight of all? How then art thou found here?’ But the Lord said to him: ‘I am not Judas which is also called Thomas but I am his brother.’”
It is not difficult to understand why the Acta Thomae would have been declared heretical: Any mention of the appearance of Jesus Christ after the crucifixion certainly ran counter to the already-formulated Christian.
But it is fair to point out that the words of advice later given by Jesus to the young newlywed couple regarding marriage and conjugal relations are so absurd and outrageous that it would seem to call into question the above account (assuming that what is recorded is what he actually said).
Also, all throughout the Acta Thomae, Thomas refers to Jesus as the “Lord, God.” Certainly if Jesus was traveling with Thomas as a human being, he would not refer to him as God. But we include this account from the Acta Thomae because despite the standard Christology that flows throughout the Acta Thomae, and the absurd advice supposedly given by Jesus to the newlyweds, it is extremely difficult to ignore the fact that the Acta Thomae records an appearance of Jesus in India.
Was the appearance mystical? It does not at all read as if this was the case. Is the Acta Thomae a total and complete fraud? We cannot answer that question. But for one reason or another, the Acta Thomae made a point to mention that a living and walking and talking Jesus was in India with Thomas at a wedding ceremony.
The author of the Ain-ul-Hayat was Ibn-i-Muhammad Hadi Muhammad Ismail. In Volume 2, Chapter 2, pages 177 to 178, he states the following regarding Yuz Asaf:
“He went to many cities and preached to those cities. At last he reached the city of Kashmir. He invited its inhabitants to righteousness and resided there till death approached him, and his holy spirit departed from his earthly body and went to rest with God. But before his death he called his companion Ba’bad and made a will…and directed him to construct a tomb for him. He laid himself with his head towards the East and stretched his legs towards the West, and went to the place of Eternity.”
The Takhat Sulaiman (Throne of Solomon) is a large temple situated on the top of a hillock near the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir. It was renamed Sankarachariya by the Hindu Maharaja in 1848. There are four inscriptions on this monument, two of which are still legible. The inscriptions are recorded in Khwaja Hassan Malik’s book, Tarikh-i-Kashmir. They read:
1. The mason of this pillar is Bihishti Zargar, Year fifty and four.
2. Khwaja Rukun son of Murjan erected this pillar.
3. At this time Yuz Asaf proclaimed his prophethood. Year fifty and four.
4. He is Jesus, Prophet of the Children of Israel.
“Note that since Islam did not exist during the reign of Gopadatta (79-109 AD), connecting the year 54 with the Muslim Hijra Era is absurd. During that period, the Laukika Era was exclusively used in Kashmir. As this era started in 3076 BC, the 54th year mentioned in the inscription would come to either 22 BC or 78 AD (since Laukika Year 1 is 3076 BC, 3054 would be 22 BC, and 3154 would be 78 AD.) As it was not possible for Jesus Christ to have traveled to Kashmir in 22 BC, I take the year 78 AD to be the correct date of his arrival.”
While there are many who regard the idea of Jesus having been married as a blasphemous notion, we see this as perhaps a most wonderful and beautiful “ending” to the story of Jesus Christ. Jesus had suffered the scorn and mockery of his own people, whose scribes and priests had conspired to have him executed. He was nailed to the cross—a torture that no one wishes to imagine. Then throughout his travels he continued to preach and teach, sometimes being driven away by the priests (such as the Zoroastrian priests of Persia). He traveled on, and at the risk of losing his very life he defended the rights of the Sudras in India and attacked the priestly class of the Brahmans, just as he had attacked the scribes and Pharisees in his homeland.
Then a wise king, King Shalivahan, who had met him and experienced Jesus’ teachings, implored Jesus to get married so that he would have a companion. What is surprising is not the fact that Jesus Christ would have united with a female companion. What is surprising is that a man who had so much to teach and so much to share, would not desire to have, and eventually form a union with, a loving female companion with whom he could share all that he had to offer. That mate’s name was Marjan, according to Kashmir tradition.
We have not yet attained a copy of an old, Persian work entitled the Negaris-Tan-i-Kashmir, in which an account of Jesus’ marriage is contained. We will continue trying to get hold of it, and the reader can check from time to time at the website to see if that document has been obtained. You can check the Ancient Documents page at that site, which you can access from the homepage by clicking the hyperlink that reads, “Ancient Documents.”
We have contacted various people, attempting to get hold of this work, including the English translation of the relevant portions. This might be a difficult task, but we are determined to put every effort into securing it. In the meantime, we reproduce below an excerpt from Andreas Faber Kaiser’s, Jesus Died in Kashmir, in which Kaiser relates a conversation he had with Mr. Basharat Saleem, a man who claims to be a living descendant of Jesus Christ:
“He told me that to
his knowledge the only written source on this subject [of Jesus’ marriage]
was the Negaris-Tan-i-Kashmir, an old Persian book that had been translated
into Urdu, and that relates that King Shalewahin (the same king as met and
conversed with Jesus in the mountains) told Jesus that he needed a woman
to take care of him, and offered him his choice of fifty. Jesus replied
that he did not need any and that no one was obliged to work for him, but
the king persisted until Jesus agreed to employ a woman to cook for him,
look after his house and do his washing. Professor Hassnain told me that the woman’s name was Maryan, and that the same book
says that she bore Jesus children.”
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